WASHINGTON - It was a meeting a year in the making.
President Joe Biden and Chinese President Xi Jinping sat down together on Wednesday just outside of San Francisco, where Asian leaders gathered for an annual summit. It was almost exactly one year since their last encounter in Bali, Indonesia, on the sidelines of another global gathering.
In addition to a formal bilateral meeting, Biden and Xi shared a lunch with top advisers and strolled the verdant grounds of the luxury estate where their meeting took place.
There's no word on whether Chinese pandas will return to Washington's zoo. But Biden said the meeting included 'some of the most constructive and productive discussions we've had.' Here's a look at how the day panned out.
Biden left the meeting with commitments on key issues.
Xi agreed to help curb the production of the illicit fentanyl that is a deadly component of drugs sold in the United States. A senior administration official, who spoke on the condition of anonymity to discuss a private meeting, said the shift will be a setback for Latin American drug dealers.
'It's going to save lives, and I appreciated President Xi's commitment on this issue,' Biden said at a press conference after his meeting.
In addition, Biden and Xi reached an agreement to resume military-to-military communications. That means Defense Secretary Lloyd Austin will speak with his Chinese counterpart once someone is named to the job, the official said. Similar engagements will take place up and down the military chain of command.
The official said Biden was 'very clear' to Xi that such communications between U.S. and China should be institutionalized and that they are 'not done as a gift or as a favor to either side.'
Biden said the U.S. and China would talk more about artificial intelligence as well.
'We're going to get our experts together and discuss risk and safety issues,' he said.
U.S. President Joe Biden arrives to speak during a press conference after meeting with Chinese President Xi Jinping during the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation leaders' week in Woodside, California, Nov. 15, 2023.
The agreements helped fulfill the White House's goal for the meeting - prove to voters that Biden's dedication to personal diplomacy is paying off.
On Sunday, national security adviser Jake Sullivan told CNN that Biden wanted 'practical ways' to show that meeting with Xi can help 'defend American interests and also deliver progress on the priorities of the American people.'
Zoe Liu, a fellow for China studies at the Council for Foreign Relations, described the meeting between Biden and Xi as a positive step, albeit an incremental one.
'These agreements will not change the structural challenges in the bilateral relations, but it paves the way for more detailed working-level discussions, which is more important,' she said.
Xi arrived in San Francisco at a time of economic challenges back in China, where an aging population and growing debt have hampered its recovering from the COVID-19 pandemic.
According to Beijing's description of the meeting, Xi pressed Biden to lift sanctions and change policies on export controls for sensitive equipment.
'Stifling China's technological progress is nothing but a move to contain China's high-quality development and deprive the Chinese people of their right to development,' the readout said. 'China's development and growth, driven by its own inherent logic, will not be stopped by external forces.'
China's President President Xi Jinping speaks during a meeting with U.S. President Joe Biden in Woodside, California, Nov. 15, 2023. (Doug Mills/The New York Times via AP, Pool)
There's no indication that Biden will agree to take such steps. But even the meeting itself could calm jittery nerves back in China, where there have been signs foreign investment is tapering off.
Zhang Lei, a Chinese businessman whose company, Cheche Group, is listed on NASDAQ, said high-level meetings such as the one between Biden and Xi can help assure companies that have been hesitant to invest in China.
'Confrontations don't work,' he said. 'You don't make money with confrontations.'
Biden and Xi go back years, and Biden often repeats the story of their meetings when they were both vice presidents.
But on Wednesday, it was Xi's turn to reference their previous encounters during brief public remarks, although he eschewed the embellishments that Biden usually adds to the tale.
'It was 12 years ago,' Xi said. 'I still remember our interactions very vividly, and it always gives me a lot of thoughts.'
Biden also emphasized the length of their relationship and the value of their interactions.
'We haven't always agreed, which was not a surprise to anyone, but our meetings have always been candid, straightforward and useful,' Biden said. He added, 'It's paramount that you and I understand each other clearly, leader to leader, with no misconceptions or miscommunication.'
Bilateral meetings aren't always conducive to a personal touch, and Biden and Xi were flanked by advisers on opposite sides of a long table. However, a senior administration official said they spoke about their wives, and Biden wished Xi's wife a happy birthday.
The official, who requested anonymity to discuss a private conversation, said Xi was embarrassed, and he admitted that he had forgotten his wife's upcoming birthday because he's been working so hard.